Samo

Samo


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Samo (reigned 623/624-658 CE) was a king of the Slavs who was responsible for the foundation of the first recorded political entity of the Slavic people, usually referred to as Samo's Empire. Since writing was not introduced into Slavic culture until the 9th and 10th centuries CE, there are no contemporary accounts on Samo written by the Slavs. The primary source on Samo is a Frankish document of uncertain authorship known as the Chronicle of Fredegar, originally written in the 7th century CE. Although many scholars have debated the authorship and reliability of Fredegar's account, it is generally accepted today as a reliable source written by a single author. While no historian or scholar accepts the claim that Fredegar was an eyewitness to the events he records, it is believed that he had access to documents, or witnesses, relating to those events.

Origin & Rise to Power

According to the Chronicle of Fredegar, Samo was originally a Frankish merchant who may have been a kind of arms-dealer who provided the Slavs with weapons. He makes his first appearance in history at some point in 623/624 CE, “in the fortieth year of Chlothar's reign”. There were many Slavic tribes at that time, but one tribe in particular, the Wends, elected Samo as their leader and king. The exact location of Samo's kingdom is still a debated matter, and several places around Slovakia, Slovenia, and eastern Austria have been proposed as the centres of Samo's realm. The Wends were a Slavic confederation, not a homogeneous tribe who, by the 5th century CE, occupied an area between the Oder River to the east and the Elbe and Saale rivers to the west, neighbouring the western borders of the territory occupied by the Franks. During the 6th century CE, the Franks and other Germanic groups alternated periods of peace and war with the Wends. Chief among these adversaries/allies were the Avars under Bayan I (562/565-602 CE), who used the Wends as front-line shock troops in battle. The historian Florin Curta cites Fredegar in claiming that the Wends were totally subject to the Avars under Bayan I. In the following passage from Curta's work, Fredegar uses the word "Huns" for "Avars" as was his common practice:

Every year, the Huns wintered with the Slavs, sleeping with their wives and daughters, and in addition the Slavs paid tribute and endured many other burdens. The sons born to the Huns by the Slavs' wives and daughters eventually found this shameful oppression intolerable; and so, as I said, they refused to obey their lords and started to rise in rebellion (Slavs in Fredegar, 148-149).

Samo organized an army against the Avars and proved to be a skilled commander. He defeated the Avars on numerous occasions, and he freed the Slavs from Avar oppression.

Bayan I died in 602 CE, and the Avar Empire began to fall apart soon after. Bayan I had led his army against the forces of the Eastern Roman Empire repeatedly since c. 568 CE and, even before his death, the empire had begun to mobilize to push the Avars back toward Pannonia. After Bayan I's death, however, the empire increased its efforts.

The Eastern Empire drove its armies against the Avars and, at about the same time, Samo took the initiative for his people. We know from ancient accounts that Samo organized an army against the Avars and proved to be a skilled commander. He defeated the Avars on numerous occasions, and he freed the Slavs from their submission to Avar oppression. It is not clear whether this conflict took place after or before the siege of Constantinople in 626 CE. If we take the ancient documents at face value, then Samo led a Wendish rebellion against the Avars in 624 CE, before the siege of Constantinople. However, scholars have regularly noted concerns about the reliability of the chronology presented in the Chronicle of Fredegar and suggest that Samo's military campaigns against the Avars actually took place after the siege of Constantinople, which would mean that Samo took advantage of the Avar defeat to free the Slavs of Avar rule. This scenario would seem to make the most sense in that the Avars were in a vulnerable position following their defeat at Constantinople, and a skilled leader would have recognized this as the time to strike. The date of 624 CE makes less sense in that it is known that the Slavs took part in the siege of Constantinople, something they most likely would not have done had they recently thrown off Avar rule.

Whatever the case may be, Samo gained the favour of the Slavs after proving his leadership and courage by defeating the Avars. Early in the 600's CE, after suffering multiple Avar/Slavic raids, the Romans organized a campaign against them with no positive results. A force of Slavs and Avars joined together, with the support of other groups such as the Bulgars, and laid siege to Constantinople in 626 CE. The Romans repelled the attack, and the barbarians left empty-handed. A work by George of Pisidia (7th century CE) suggests conflicts between the Avars and the Slavs erupted after their defeat in 626 CE, but tensions between the two people are recorded earlier by Fredegar, and the conflicts between the Slavs and Avars were almost certainly the result of decades-long oppression of the former by the latter. What the Slavs were lacking was a strong leader, and that leader was Samo.

Expansion of Samo's Kingdom

Samo also built a solid political leadership by forging alliances with several Wendish families: he is reported to have married at least twelve Wendish women who bore him 22 sons and 15 daughters. His involvement in long-distance trade secured him considerable wealth and high status. This status, however, did not secure his new kingdom against the powerful Franks on his border. The Franks were Christian, while the Slavs under Samo were pagan; this situation seemed to justify, to the Franks, their repeated invasion of Slavic lands under the pretense of conversion. Samo negotiated a treaty with Dagobert I, the Frankish king, but the peace would not last for long.

Love History?

Sign up for our free weekly email newsletter!

In c. 630 CE, Dagobert I demanded that Samo send him those Slavs who had "killed and robbed a great number of Frankish merchants." Samo agreed that such criminals should be punished but only after due process had determined who they were and why - or if - they had committed such crimes. Samo "simply stated his intention to hold an investigation so that justice could be done in this dispute, as well as in others that had arisen between them in the meantime (Fredegar, IV, 68). He therefore refused to send the accused men to the Frankish king. Dagobert I seized upon this refusal as a breach of the treaty and led a large expedition against the Slavs.

Already a powerful man, Samo's position became even stronger in 631 CE when he defeated the Franks in the Battle of Wogastisburg. Dagobert I led a force of three armies against the Slavs who, commanded by Samo, defeated the Frankish invaders, decimating their forces, and driving the survivors from the field. As a result of the Frankish defeat, several Slavic groups that were subordinate to the Franks were released from their servitude, and a local leader named Dervan (also known as Dervanus) declared his loyalty and submission, and that of his people, to Samo. Thus, Dervan joined Samo and supported him in his subsequent military campaigns. After the victory against the Franks, Samo invaded and raided the eastern frontier of the Frankish realm several times.

Concerned about the Slavic raids, the Frankish authorities appointed Radulf, the Duke of Thuringia, with the task of protecting the Frankish border against Samo's threat. Radulf was initially successful in defending the Frankish borders against Samo but, sometime around 640 CE, an internal Frankish political struggle forced Radulf to battle against other Frankish groups. The Chronicle of Fredegar states that Radulf then sought to strengthen his position by forming an alliance with Samo, which means that Samo's power and prestige was still significant at that time. No Frankish force could stand against him, and he secured his kingdom against all future attempts at outside control or invasion for the next 18 years.

SAMO'S DEATH

Samo died in 658 CE, and the kingdom he had built died with him. Despite his influence, power, and wealth, none of his 22 sons succeeded him as a king. This may suggest that, within the political structure of the Slavs, rule was not inherited but granted based upon personal merit (as was known to be the case with the Avars prior to Bayan I's rule). Samo's sons seem to have lacked their father's skills, and no successor to the kingdom he founded is recorded. The Avars swiftly entered the territory occupied by the Slavs after Samo died and re-established their previous dominance over the people until their defeat by the Franks under Charlemagne in 796 CE. The powerful position of the Slavs in the region during Samo's time diminished swiftly after his death when they became subjects of, first, the Avars, and then of the Franks. As with many great leaders, Samo's individual character held his people together, and his skills in leadership and battle allowed them to prosper, but these virtues were not passed on to his successors. He is remembered today as a great king and charismatic leader who united his people in their fight for freedom and succeeded, even if only for a limited time.


Samoa

Samoa ( / s ə ˈ m oʊ ə / ), officially the Independent State of Samoa (Samoan: Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa Samoan: Sāmoa, IPA: [ˈsaːmoa] ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesian island country consisting of two main islands (Savai'i and Upolu), two smaller, inhabited islands (Manono and Apolima), and several smaller, uninhabited islands, including the Aleipata Islands (Nu'utele, Nu'ulua, Fanuatapu and Namua). The capital city is Apia. The Lapita people discovered and settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed a Samoan language and Samoan cultural identity.

  1. Head of State.
  2. Symbols SAT, ST or T are in use as well. The terms Tālā and Sene are translations of the English words Dollar and Cent in the Samoan language.
  3. Since 31 December 2011. [6]
  4. "Western Samoa Time" are a time zone abbreviation used all year round (including in DST).
  5. Since 7 September 2009. [7] Although driving is on the left side of the roadway centre line, Samoa allows cars with steering wheels on either the left or the right side of the vehicle to use the roads.

Samoa is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions. The sovereign state is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976. [8] Because of the Samoans' seafaring skills, pre-20th-century European explorers referred to the entire island group (which includes American Samoa) as the "Navigator Islands.” [9] [10] The country was occupied by the German Empire from 1899 to 1915, and by a joint British and New Zealand colonial administration until 1 January 1962, when it became independent.


Origins of the Conflicts between Tonga/Samoa

Profile:
The name of the excerpt from pasefiaka website is Tui Tonga. It is a shorten summary of the history of tui tonga and stems from scholarly references:References: St. Cartmail, Keith. The Art of Tonga: Ko E Ngaahi'Aati'O Tonga. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997 Amadio, Nadine. Pacifica. Australia: Angus & Robertson, 1993 Stuebel, C. Tala o le Vavau. Auckland: Pasifika Press, 1995 Tala o le Vavau.
Pacific Island Legend by William Flood. He gives a general overview of various pacific legends including the legends of Tui Manua and Tui Tonga.
An Account of Samoan History since 1918. by Te'o Tuvale

Evaluate:
These sources are closely related to my topic. All these sources go in depth and explain the orgins of how the relationship between Tonga and Samoa actually began and how it was shaped over the the course of history. They stem from scholarly references, so we know that the information reported has a solid credential background. The book by Te'o Tuvale more specifically gives a thorough description of the origins of the legends of Samoa and how tonga plays a role in the samoan culture.

The Discovery of Samoans by Tongans:

Except from An Account of Samoan History:
[Leutele-le-iite was King of Atua at the time when the first canoe with the King of Tonga on board reached Samoa. The King of Tonga was searching for his brother who had fled from Tonga to escape the engeance [sic] of the King for having committed adultery with the King's wife and during this search he discovered Samoa. The King was so impressed with the Islands that on his return to Tonga still in search of his brother, he planned the war against Samoa.]

Legend has it that around 900 AD - 950, Tui Tonga (son of the sun god and tongan woman) became the first king of the islands of tonga. Under his rule, they captured and enslaved the samoan people for nearly 400 years. During this reign, Tui Tonga would have as he pleased whatever Samoan woman he pleased. By 1600 A.D, the Malietoa family mounted a counterattack against the Tongans in hopes of gaining their freedom. "The war to drive out the Tongans was then planned. Tuna and Fata were appointed to operate in the back country and Ulumasui and Tupuloa were put in charge of the Aana district. A dance was given on the malae by the Samoans for the Tongans. That day was called Matamatame. A song was sung whilst the dance was in progress - “Matamatame, Matamatame, let down your foot but catch hold of your war stick and let the blow against Tonga be a might one.” Clubs were thereupon raised and the Tongans pursued. All districts alike chased the Tongans. Tuna and Fata kept to the back country and Ulumasui and Tupuola to the Aana district. The Samoans met at Mulifanua and drove the Tongans into the sea where their fleet was anchored. At this juncture Talaaifei'i, the King of Tonga, made the following speech: Malietoa, Malietau - ""Ua Malie Toa, Malie Tau Ou te le toe sau i le auliuli tau, a o le auliuli folau O le a le toe sii mai se taua e Toga i Samoa(well fought) let us give over this business of war and remember this - I will not again come to Samoa except to pay a friendly visit.” This agreement has been kept down to the present time. This incident was the commencement of the Malietoa" This is where the first king of Samoa sprung from, which became known as Malietoa or Tui Manua.

Although we see in history that the treaty of peace made between these two islands was simply trough the word of mouth, it has been honored through centuries. However somewhere down the line, and may I see, because of the lack of historical knowledge and simple ignorances, samoans and tongans began a war that ended and was sealed longgg before. So from history, I can say that the present war between these two countries is based on false and faulty ground. Resentment or disagreement from the past, lack of thorough knowledge of both histories is not a sound-enough reason for Tongans and Samaons especially in California to hate each other.


Culture and History

There is much to explore in Samoa's ancient culture and rich history.

Upolu
EFKS Museum

The EFKS Museum is situated approximately twelve miles west of the capital of Apia and about the same distance east of Faleolo International Airport. It is Samo ..

Museum of Samoa

The museum has a spectacular collection of cultural and historical artifacts and other sources of information relating to the customs and cultures of Samoa and ..

Samoa Cultural Village

Discover Samoa's age-old culture and traditions in a fun and interactive way at the Samoa Cultural Village on Beach Road in the heart of Apia.

Savai'i
Cape Mulinuu

Cape Mulinuu is located at Samoa's most western point.

Robert Louis Stevenson Museum (RLS Museum)

The majestic and magnificent Robert Louis Stevenson Museum - the place where this famous Scottish poet and author fell in love.

Savai'i
Saleaula Lava Field

Saleaula Lava Field is one of the most popular sites with visitors.

Upolu
Samoa Culture Centre

Samoa Culture Centre represents the authenticity of our Samoan Culture through our cultural activities, entertainment and informal education.


History of American Samoa

The Samoan islands were settled by Polynesians (probably from Tonga) about 1000 bce . Many scholars believe that by about 500 ce Samoa had become the point of origin for voyagers who settled much of eastern Polynesia.

The Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen sighted Samoa in 1722, and other European explorers, beachcombers, and traders followed. The London Missionary Society sent its first representatives to the islands in the 1830s. More missionaries traveled to the islands as missionary influence spread to Tutuila and later the Manua Islands.

In 1878 the United States signed a treaty for the establishment of a naval station in Pago Pago Harbor. An 1899 agreement between colonial powers divided Samoa into spheres of influence: Germany gained control of the western islands, and the United States took the eastern islands. Formal cession by the local chiefs came later. By 1904 the eastern islands had all been ceded to the United States, although the U.S. Congress did not formally accept the deeds of cession until Feb. 20, 1929. Under the administration of the U.S. Navy (1900–51), American Samoa became a strategic naval base, but the Samoan leaders had little administrative power. In 1951 control of the territory was transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior. The U.S. government appointed a governor who had full powers to administer the territory. The governor appointed political advisers and senior civil servants from the United States to help him.

The Samoans agitated for control of their country’s affairs, and in 1977 Peter Coleman, a Samoan, became the territory’s first elected governor. Since then all members of the territory’s Fono have been elected by the citizens. In 1981 American Samoans for the first time elected a nonvoting delegate to serve a two-year term in the U.S. House of Representatives. Congressman Eni F.H. Faleomavaega was elected to that office in 1988 and repeatedly won reelection.

On Sept. 29, 2009, the Samoan archipelago was shaken by an undersea earthquake of magnitude 8.3, centred some 120 miles (190 km) to the south in the Pacific Ocean. The quake generated a tsunami that flooded the islands of American Samoa in several waves and caused extensive damage to Tutuila Pago Pago was inundated, and villages throughout the islands were flattened, killing scores of people.


History of Samoa

Archeological evidence shows that Samoa has been inhabited for over 2,000 years by migrants from Southeast Asia. Europeans did not arrive in the area until the 1700s and by the 1830s, missionaries and traders from England began arriving in large numbers.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Samoan islands were politically divided and in 1904 the easternmost islands became the U.S. territory known as American Samoa. At the same time, the western islands became Western Samoa and they were controlled by Germany until 1914 when that control passed to New Zealand. New Zealand then administered Western Samoa until it gained its independence in 1962. According to the U.S. Department of State, it was the first country in the region to gain independence.

In 1997, Western Samoa's name changed to the Independent State of Samoa. Today, however, the nation is known as Samoa throughout most of the world.


History in Samoa

Archaeologists believe that Polynesians settled in the Samoa Islands about 3,000 years ago. Their great migration halted here for some 1,000 years before voyagers went on to colonize the Marquesas, Society Islands, and other island groups farther east. Thus the Samoas are known as the "Cradle of Polynesia."

The universe known by the early Samoans included Tonga and Fiji, to which they regularly journeyed, often waging war. Tongan invaders ruled the Samoas between A.D. 950 and 1250, and there still is a friendly rivalry between the two nations -- especially on the rugby field.

The first European to see the Samoas was Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen, who in 1722 sighted the Manu'a Islands in what is now American Samoa. The first Europeans to land were part of a French expedition under Jean La Pérouse in 1787. They came ashore on the north coast of Tutuila in American Samoa and were attacked by Samoan warriors. Twelve members of the landing party and 39 Samoans were killed.

Colonialism Arrives -- The Germans gained the upper hand over today's independent Samoa by staging a coup in 1887, backed up (unofficially) by German gunboats. They governed through Malietoa, one of Samoa's four paramount chiefs. One of his rivals, Mataafa, lost a bloody rebellion in 1888 and was exiled.

Continuing unrest turned into a major international incident -- fiasco is a better word -- when the United States, Britain, and Germany sent a total of seven warships to Apia in March of 1889. A hurricane arrived unexpectedly, and only a British warship survived unscathed. Of the rest, four were sunk, two others were washed ashore, and 146 lives were lost. (A newspaper story of the time is mounted in the lounge of Aggie Grey's Hotel & Bungalows in Apia.)

In December 1889, an agreement was signed in Berlin under which Germany was given today's independent Samoa, the United States was handed Eastern Samoa, and Britain created a protectorate over Tonga. The two Samoas were split apart and swept into the colonial system. The Germans in Samoa proceeded to make fortunes from their huge, orderly copra plantations.

White-Skinned Sky Busters -- To the Samoans, the first Europeans to visit their shores seemed to have come through the slit that separated the sky from the sea. Thus they named these strange people papalagi (sky busters). Shortened to palagi (pah-lahng-gee), the name now means any Westerner with white skin.

The London Missionary Society's Rev. John Williams, who roamed the South Pacific in the Messenger of Peace, landed the first missionaries in Samoa in 1830. European-style settlements grew up at Apia on Upolu and on the shores of Pago Pago Bay on Tutuila. German businessmen established copra plantations on Upolu by the late 1850s. When steamships started plying the route between San Francisco and Sydney, the U.S. Navy negotiated a treaty with the chiefs of Tutuila in 1872 to permit the U.S. to use Pago Pago as a coaling station. The U.S. Congress never ratified this document, but it served to keep the Germans from penetrating into Eastern Samoa, as American Samoa was then known.

A Kiwi Backwater -- German rule came to an abrupt end with the outbreak of World War I in 1914, when New Zealand sent an expeditionary force to Apia, and the German governor surrendered. The Germans were interned for the duration of the war, and their huge land holdings were confiscated. New Zealand remained in charge until 1962, initially under the League of Nations and then under the United Nations.

The New Zealand administrators did little in the islands except keep the lid on unrest, at which they were generally successful. In 1929, however, the Mau Movement created an uprising. It was crushed when New Zealand constables fired on a crowd of protestors outside the Courthouse, at Beach Road and Ifiifi Street in Apia, killing nine.

When opposition to colonialism flared up in the United Nations 20 years later, a Legislative Assembly of matais was established to exercise a degree of internal self-government. A constitution was drafted in 1960, and the people approved it and their own independence a year later by referendum. On January 1, 1962, Samoa became the first South Pacific colony to regain its independence from the Western powers.

Samoa remained a backwater during most of its career as a colony and trusteeship territory. Only during World War II did it appear on the world stage, and then solely as a training base for thousands of Allied servicemen on their way to fight the Japanese. Tourism increased after the big jets started landing at Pago Pago in the 1960s, but significant numbers of visitors started arriving only after Samoa's Faleolo Airport was upgraded to handle large aircraft in the 1980s.

Note: This information was accurate when it was published, but can change without notice. Please be sure to confirm all rates and details directly with the companies in question before planning your trip.


A Short History of Samoa

Ancient Samoan history has been revealed by artifacts and literatures. Excavated lapita pottery across the country depicts old settlements dating back in 1500 BC. Oral folk tales tell historical accounts as far back as 1000 AD. Migration is believed to have occurred in 1500 BC to 1000 AD among Polynesian settlers.

Samoan Islands have been attractive to foreign empires in the past. In fact, western countries expressed their interest on claiming territorial dominance. Samoa Tripartite Convention has been instituted to resolve the erring interest on this South Pacific territory. As a result, Germany got the western portion (Upolu and Savaii) later known as the present-day Samoa while United States got the eastern portion (Tutuila and Manu’a) later known as American Samoa.

Colonial history of Samoa is attributed to the invasion waged by Germany and New Zealand. Germans peacefully held the protectorate until the rise of Mau movement in 1908. In turn, the opposition led to the horrible exile in Saipan which resulted to many deaths. In 1914, New Zealand successfully commenced its conquering efforts. Shortly after, the territory was officially awarded to New Zealand through the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.

Liberation has been vested on January 1, 1962 for the Western Samoa. This was historical for it became the pioneer Polynesian nation which was declared independent in the 20th century. Then, the independent State which was used to be referred to as “Western Samoa” assumed the country name “Samoa” by virtue of the 1997 Constitutional amendment though Eastern Samoa protested to express its disfavour.


The great majority of the population (more than nine-tenths) is ethnically Samoan there are tiny minorities of Tongan and Filipino origin and of people of mixed ethnicity. The Samoans are a Polynesian people closely related to the native peoples of New Zealand, French Polynesia, Hawaii, and Tonga. The Samoan way of life, or fa‘a Samoa, is communal. The basic unit of social organization is the extended family (aiga). Even after decades of foreign influence, most Samoans are fluent in the Samoan language. Most American Samoans nonetheless also speak English. About half of the population belongs to one of several Protestant denominations, among which the Congregational Christian Church has the largest following. More than one-sixth of the population is Roman Catholic, and slightly less than one-sixth is Mormon.

Pago Pago is the main port and administrative and commercial centre. There is a large proportion of foreign-born residents in American Samoa: more than two-fifths of the people were born outside the territory, largely in Samoa, with smaller proportions from the United States, Tonga, various Asian countries, and other Pacific islands. Additionally, since the mid-20th century many American Samoans have migrated to the United States, with the result that there are more American Samoans abroad than on the islands. The population that remains in American Samoa is concentrated in urban areas only about one-eighth is rural. The rate of population growth has increased rapidly since the late 20th century, mainly because of high birth rates and low death rates. The population is young, nearly one-third being under the age of 15, and the life expectancy is 74 years of age.


History of Samoa - Independence

From 1908, with the establishment of the Mau movement ("opinion movement"), Western Samoans began to assert their claim to independence. The early beginnings of the national Mau movement began in 1908 with the 'Mau a Pule' resistance on Savai'i, led by orator chief Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe. Lauaki and Mau a Pule chiefs, wives and children were exiled to Saipan in 1909. Many died in exile.

Shortly after the outbreak of World War I, in August 1914, New Zealand sent an expeditionary force to seize and occupy German Samoa. Although Germany refused to officially surrender the islands, no resistance was offered and the occupation took place without any fighting. New Zealand continued the occupation of Western Samoa throughout World War I. In 1919, under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany relinquished its claims to the islands.

The Mau movement gained momentum with Samoa's royal leaders becoming more visible in supporting the peoples movement but strongly opposed violence. On 28 December 1929 Tupua Tamasese was shot along with eleven others during a peaceful demonstration in Apia. Tupua Tamasese died the following day, with the advice that no more blood should be shed.

New Zealand administered Western Samoa first as a League of Nations Mandate and then as a United Nations trusteeship until the country received its independence on 1 January 1962 as Western Samoa. Samoa's first prime minister following independence was paramount chief Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu'u II.

Samoa was the first Polynesian people to be recognized as a sovereign nation in the 20th century. In 1977, Queen Elizabeth II visited the Samoa during her tour of the Commonwealth.

In July 1997 the constitution was amended to change the country's name from "Western Samoa" to "Samoa." Samoa had been known simply as "Samoa" in the United Nations since joining the organization in 1976. The neighboring U.S. territory of American Samoa protested the move, feeling that the change diminished its own Samoan identity. American Samoans still use the terms "Western Samoa" and "Western Samoans."

In 2002, New Zealand's prime minister Helen Clark formally apologized for two incidents during the period of New Zealand's administration: a failure in 1918 to quarantine the SS Talune, which carried the 'Spanish 'flu' to Samoa, leading to an epidemic which devastated the Samoan population, and the shooting of leaders of the non-violent Mau movement during a ceremonial procession in 1929.

In 2007, Samoa's first Head of State, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, died at the age of 95. He held this title jointly with Tupua Tamasese Lealofi until his death in 1963. The late Malietoa Tanumafili II was Samoa's Head of State for 45 years. He was the son of Malietoa Tanumafili I, who was the last Samoan king recognized by Europe and the Western World.

Samoa's current Head of State is His Highness Tui-Atua Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Efi, who was anointed the Head of State title with the unanimous endorsement of Samoa's Parliament. A symbol of traditional Samoan protocol in alignment with Samoan decision making stressing the importance of consensus in the 21st century.

Read more about this topic: History Of Samoa

Famous quotes containing the word independence :

&ldquo There is no dignity quite so impressive, and no independence quite so important, as living within your means. &rdquo
&mdashCalvin Coolidge (1872�)

&ldquo The [nineteenth-century] young men who were Puritans in politics were anti-Puritans in literature. They were willing to die for the independence of Poland or the Manchester Fenians and they relaxed their tension by voluptuous reading in Swinburne. &rdquo
&mdashRebecca West (1892�)

&ldquo . we’re not out to benefit society, to remold existence, to make industry safe for anyone except ourselves, to give any small peoples except ourselves their rights. We’re not out for submerged tenths, we’re not going to suffer over how the other half lives. We’re out for Mary’s job and Luella’s art, and Barbara’s independence and the rest of our individual careers and desires. &rdquo
&mdashAnne O’Hagan (1869–?)


Watch the video: Samo - De Que Me Sirve la Vida Live Version